Tuesday, March 17, 2020
Aspect of Life essays Throughout life people make numerous decision upon life, some of which are less important as others. One of the main decisions I took was that in which I had decided to leave my old life in China and come to Australia. After all, I always wanted to explore the world. Now after spending half of my life here, I would like to bid farewell to a few of favorable memories of home. Goodbye to the little girl that played with me when I was in kinder garden who helped me get through my first day away from mum. Goodbye to the teachers who carried me in her chest when I cry in tears every morning seeing my mum go to work without me. Goodbye to my primary friends who played table tennis together and winning the championships, I am sure you are all doing great in high school and that you havent stopped playing table tennis. Goodbye to my family who gave me all the support when my dad was overseas. Helping me with the first three years of schooling. I hope I will come back home someday and see you all again. Goodbye to my mum who loved me and looked after me with my every step in life. Thank you for taking me to the dentist when my tooth was aching at the middle of the night. Thank you for picking my up after receiving six stitches under my chin during school sports. I wish you were here now, by my side. Finally I would like to say goodbye to my step mum, but I cannot, as she is now living with dad and I. ...
Sunday, March 1, 2020
The 9 Best Criminal Justice Schools SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips Are you passionate about law and preventing crime?Curious about how punishment and prisons work? Then a criminal justice degreewould probably be a good fitfor you. But how can you find good criminal justice schools to apply to? In this article, we go over what criminal justice schools are, why people choose to earn degrees in the field, and how you can learn to identify top criminal justice schools, both in-person and online. We then give you a list of our picks for the nine best criminal justice schools. What Is Criminal Justice? Overview Before we look at the best criminal justice schools, letÃ¢â¬â¢s go over what exactly the criminal justice field entails. Criminal justice is the study of the criminal justice system, which includes law enforcement, correctional facilities and institutions (e.g., jails, prisons, and juvenile detention centers), criminal courts, and all the roles within these systems. Criminal justice degrees differ from degrees in criminology. Criminology is a social/behavioral science that focuses on the scientific study of delinquency and crime,including why people commit crimes and how we might be able to prevent them. On the other hand, criminal justice focuses more on the practical side, including what types of crimes take place, how courts and prisons work, the role of the police, etc. Despite the differences between these two fields, there's often some overlapin terms of topics and courses. Some schools offer degrees that combine both criminal justice and criminology. For example, the University of Missouri- St. Louis offersa BS in Criminology and Criminal Justice. What Are Criminal Justice Schools? For the sake of this article, we'll be defining criminal justice schools as any institutions that offer a criminal justice degree program (and usually a criminal justice department or college). You can look for criminal justice schools in a specific area of the US using the website All Criminal Justice Schools. Just type inyour zip codeto get a list of schoolsthat have criminal justice degrees. Alternatively, you can browse criminal justice schools by state onCriminal Justice Degree Schools. Criminal justice schools generally offer a mix of criminal justice degrees, which can include certificates/diplomas, associate degrees, bachelor's degrees, masterÃ¢â¬â¢s degrees, and doctorates in criminal justice or a related field. Many criminal justice schools also have the option to earn a degree in criminal justice entirely online. This can be convenient for those who find it difficult to attend classes in-person and who would prefer the flexibility of an online program. So what exactly do you learn in a criminal justice program? YouÃ¢â¬â¢ll usually cover topics that span the broader fields of sociology, psychology, political science, philosophy, and public administration. Most criminal justice programs require you to take classes on the American legal system, judicial administration, the police, legal issues, ethical concerns, and juvenile delinquency. Many criminal justice majors move on to a career in law enforcement. Why Go to a Criminal Justice School? Many people choose to attend criminal justice schools to not only learn about the criminal justice system, but to also get a job that utilizes the knowledge and skills theyÃ¢â¬â¢ve acquired in their degree program. A degree in criminal justice can help prepare you for any of the following jobs: Bailiff CIA agent Correctional officer Crime scene investigator DEA agent FBI agent Fraud investigator Police officer Private detective Probation officer Secret Service agent Security guard State trooper Though many of these jobs require just a high school diploma, having an associate or bachelor's degree in criminal justice could help you stand out from candidates and raise your potential for higher wages and promotions. Moreover, some people get a bachelorÃ¢â¬â¢s degree in criminal justice to lay the foundation for getting a graduate degree in a related field such aslaw. The following tabledepictsthe median salaries for various criminal justice-related jobs, along with each job's minimum required degree and employment growth rate for the years 2016-2026. Data comes from the US Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS). Jobs are arranged from highest salary to lowest. Note that theaverage employment growth rate is 7% for all jobs,so any job that has a rate higher than this is growing faster than average. Job Title Minimum Degree Required Median Salary (2018) Job Outlook (2016-2026) Lawyers Doctoral or professional degree $120,910 8% Sociologists MasterÃ¢â¬â¢s or doctoral degree $82,050 1% Police and Detectives High school diploma or college degree $63,380 7% Criminal Justice and Law Enforcement Teachers, Postsecondary MasterÃ¢â¬â¢s or doctoral degree $61,900 15% (all postsecondary teachers) Forensic Science Technicians BachelorÃ¢â¬â¢s degree $58,230 17% Probation Officers and Correctional Treatment Specialists BachelorÃ¢â¬â¢s degree $53,020 6% Private Detectives and Investigators High school diploma $50,090 11% Correctional Officers and Bailiffs High school diploma $44,400 -7% Security Guards and Gaming Surveillance Officers High school diploma $28,530 6% As you can see above, generally speaking, the more education you have, the higher the salary youÃ¢â¬â¢re likely to earn. This isnÃ¢â¬â¢t just true for the criminal justice field but for all fields. According to a BLS report, there's a clear trend with grad-degree holders making more money on average than bachelor's and associate degree holders. Furthermore, bachelorÃ¢â¬â¢s and associate degree holders typically make more than those with only a high school diploma. Which Criminal Justice Schools Should You Apply To? Now that weÃ¢â¬â¢ve gone over what kinds of jobs you can get with a criminal justice degree, letÃ¢â¬â¢s take a look at how you can figure out which criminal justice schools and programs are top-quality. A great criminal justice school will have most or all of the following qualities: A department or college specializing in criminal justice or criminology A variety of criminal justice-related classes Faculty with expertise in criminal justice and related topics, such as sociology and psychology A high graduation rate Professional and/or research opportunities Generally speaking, there is no notable difference in quality between a traditional in-person criminal justice program and an online one. If you prefer the idea of earning your bachelorÃ¢â¬â¢s or masterÃ¢â¬â¢s degree online, (accredited!) criminal justice online schools can be a great choice. I suggest browsing the US News list of the best graduate online criminal justice programs to get a feel for what schools offer strong online programs. Most high-quality criminal justice schools offer equally high-quality online programs. These can be either bachelorÃ¢â¬â¢s or masterÃ¢â¬â¢s programs. Note that you cannot earn a doctorate through criminal justice online schools. Any school offering this option is most likely a scam and wonÃ¢â¬â¢t actually reward you with a legitimate doctorate. If you decide to get your criminal justice degree online, great! Just be aware that there are a few disadvantages to doing so. For one, you likely wonÃ¢â¬â¢t get to network as much with professors and students as you would with a traditional program. Secondly, some employers might look down on an online degree (though this really depends on the employer- most should not care how you got your degree as long as itÃ¢â¬â¢s legitimate!). Overall, there are a lot of factors that go into picking the right criminal justice program for you.Now, letÃ¢â¬â¢s take a look at the best criminal justice schools, both in-person and online. The 9 Best Criminal Justice Schools, In-Person and Online There are many criminal justice schools in the US, both in-person and online. But which ones are the best? WeÃ¢â¬â¢ve looked through several rankings lists of the best criminal justice schools to come up with our own list below ofnine top criminal justice schools. These criminal justice schools were judged primarily on the following factors: Rankings of traditional and online programs by websites such as Niche and US News Overall program/school reputation and prestige Whether or not the school has a dedicated department or school to criminal justice studies Diversity of majors and courses offered in criminal justice and related fields Breadth of faculty's areas of expertise Note that the nine criminal justice schools below are not listed in any particular order. Also, these schools include grad programs as well as online programs in criminal justice and related fields. CUNY John Jay College of Criminal Justice- New York, NY A premier criminal justice school, the CUNY John Jay College of Criminal Justice is home to 13,000 undergraduates, 41% of whom are majoring in criminal justice. Other popular majors include criminology and forensic psychology. John Jay offers many criminal justice majors,with concentrationsranging from crime control and prevention to theory and practice. Moreover, several criminal justice graduate programs are available.At the master's level, you can study criminal justice, international crime and justice, and forensic psychology, among several other related programs. At the doctoral level, your options arecriminal justice or psychology. Lastly, John Jay Online- the collegeÃ¢â¬â¢s distance-learning branch- allows you to earnan MA in either Criminal Justice or International Crime and Justice entirely online. Northeastern University- Boston, MA Established in 1967, NortheasternÃ¢â¬â¢s School of Criminology and Criminal Justice is a top institution for criminal justice studies. Here, students get the benefit of smaller-sized classes and have the opportunity to work directly with faculty on research projects. Professors specialize in a variety of criminal justice-related topics, from criminal law and terrorism to trafficking, juvenile justice, and incarceration. What's more, the interdisciplinary array of majors and minors allows you to combine criminal justice withother fieldssuch as computer science, psychology, cybersecurity, and political science. The school offersa criminal justice student advisory council and honor society, as well as a variety ofcriminal justice MS, JD, and PhD programs. Pennsylvania State University- University Park, PA Penn StateÃ¢â¬â¢s Department of Sociology and Criminologyis home toone of the best criminology programs in the country (ranked #5 by US News). With this highly ranked bachelorÃ¢â¬â¢s program, youÃ¢â¬â¢ll learn everything there is to know for launching a career in criminal justice. Topics of study fall more along the lines of sociology, including why people commit crimes, the criminal justice system, and social research methods. There are two options for majors at this school: BA in Criminology, which focuses on providing students withabroad liberal arts education BS in Criminology, which helps students develop stronger science and research skills If you would prefer to major in criminal justice specifically, Penn State offers atop-ranked online Criminal Justice BS program. With this program, youÃ¢â¬â¢ll not only study criminology but also ethics, law, policing, alternatives to incarceration, and security. Michigan State University (Jeffness/Wikimedia Commons) Michigan State University - East Lansing, MI Another well-regardedcriminal justice school, MSUÃ¢â¬â¢s School of Criminal Justicegives students the option to earn a BS in Criminal Justice. This bachelor's program offers an impressive breadth of classesin topics such as criminology, investigation procedure, policing, juvenile justice, private security, corrections, violence against women, and cyber-crime. MSU also offers four study abroad programs- specificallyfor criminal justice students- in the Caribbean, Australia, Madagascar, and the Philippines. In terms of graduate study, your options include two masterÃ¢â¬â¢s programs (in either criminal justice or forensic science) and acriminal justice doctoral program.You could alsoenroll in MSUÃ¢â¬â¢s online criminal justice masterÃ¢â¬â¢s program, which is ranked #10 by US News on its online graduate criminal justice programs list. University of Cincinnati- Cincinnati, OH At UCÃ¢â¬â¢s School of Criminal Justice, you can major/minor in criminal justice or paralegal studies. The former is an interdisciplinary program that prepares students to work as court administrators, parole officers, criminal investigators, risk managers,etc. It isalso available entirely online, so if you canÃ¢â¬â¢t make it to campus, youÃ¢â¬â¢re in luck! In addition to these two undergraduate majors, certificates are available in the more specialized areas offorensic populations, cybersecurity, and correctional rehabilitation. UC also offersa masterÃ¢â¬â¢s (in-person or online) and a doctoral program in criminal justice.UC is currently ranked #8 by US News for best online graduate criminal justice programs. University of California, Irvine- Irvine, CA UC IrvineÃ¢â¬â¢s Department of Criminology, Law, and Society offers prestigious undergraduate and graduate criminal justice programs that consistently top US News ranking lists (including Best Online Graduate Criminal Justice Programs, on which UCI is currently ranked #2). The interdisciplinary department is the only criminology department among the UC schools, and it combines the study of criminology with law and society. The faculty here specializes inan array of subject areas, including psychology and law, race and justice, and gangs and crime. The bachelorÃ¢â¬â¢s program in criminology, law, and society offers classes that cover a multitude of topics, such as social media and law, juvenile delinquency, law and inequality, gender and social control, and immigration and crime. It also stresses the importance of field study, often placing students in police departments, probation agencies, and public defendersÃ¢â¬â¢ offices. Lastly, UCI offers a doctoral program in criminology, law, and society, as well as two online masterÃ¢â¬â¢s programs: a Master of Advanced Study in Criminology, Law, and Society; and a Master of Legal and Forensic Psychology. Sam Houston State University (J. Stephen Conn/Flickr) Sam Houston State University- Huntsville, TX Located about an hour north of Houston, Sam HoustonÃ¢â¬â¢s College of Criminal Justice offers a large array of criminal justice courses (both in-person and online), the opportunity to study at local research institutes, and numerous criminal justice scholarships. The school has tons of undergraduate and graduate degree programs,including the following: BA/BS in Criminal Justice BA/BS in Victim Studies MA/MS in Criminal Justice MS in Forensic Science PhD in Criminal Justice You can also earn your degree online here.Criminal justice programs offered online include the BA/BS in Criminal Justice, MS in Criminal Justice, and MS in Homeland Security Management. Sam Houston is currentlyranked #3 by US Newsfor its online graduate criminal justice programs. Florida State University - Tallahassee, FL The Florida State College of Criminology and Criminal Justice is home toexcellentcriminology and criminal justice programs.Currently,FSUis ranked #6 by US News for its online graduate criminal justice programs and #5 on the list ofbest criminology schools. FSUprovides students withnumerous opportunities for real-world research through its Center for Criminology and Public Policy Research. It also works in association with the Pat Thomas Law Enforcement Academy so that students interested in becoming police officers can earn their State Officer Certifications along with their degrees. Here, you can earn a bachelorÃ¢â¬â¢s in criminology and criminal justice in either a traditional or online program. MasterÃ¢â¬â¢s and doctoral degrees in criminology and criminal justice are offered too; these include a fully online masterÃ¢â¬â¢s and a one-year MS in Criminology. University of Maryland- College Park, MD Home to the #1 ranked criminology program in the nation, UMDÃ¢â¬â¢s Department of Criminology and Criminal Justice is a fantastic choice for a criminal justice education. In the BA in Criminology and Criminal Justice program, students take a variety of classes, covering topics such as corrections, policing, courts and sentences, and criminological theory. UMD's masterÃ¢â¬â¢s degree program prepares students for careers in private non-profit agencies, the government, and research institutes, while its PhD program aims to help students become criminal justice scholars and teachers. Conclusion: The Best Criminal Justice Schools Criminal justice is a popular field of study because it can open up doors to a variety of jobs in law, government, security, etc. While similar to criminology, criminal justice is more about the study of the criminal justice system itself and less about why people commit crimes. Criminal justice schools are any schools that offer a criminal justice major- and better yet, a criminal justice department or school. There are many kinds of criminal justice degrees, from associate degrees to doctorates. You can also study an array of related fields at criminal justice schools, such as criminology, criminal law, forensic science, sociology, and paralegal studies. The best criminal justice schools will have a dedicated criminal justice department, lots of criminal justice-related courses, and stellar faculty.Furthermore,criminal justice online schools can be just as good as, if not better than, traditional criminal justice schools.Soif youÃ¢â¬â¢d rather earn your degree online, there are plenty of options out there! Afterresearching dozens of colleges,we came up with a list of the nine best criminal justice schools. These schools are excellent options forall types of students, whether you would rather earn a bachelorÃ¢â¬â¢s degree or a graduate degree, or prefer to study online over in-person. In no particular order, here again are the nine best criminal justice schools: CUNY John Jay College of Criminal Justice Northeastern University Pennsylvania State University Michigan State University University of Cincinnati University of California, Irvine Sam Houston State University Florida State University University of Maryland No matter which of these schools you end up going to, you're sure to get an amazing criminal justice education! WhatÃ¢â¬â¢s Next? Lots of people who study criminal justice go into criminal law. Get the rundown ofhow pre-law works and what you can do to prepare for law school, one step at a time. Want more lists of the best schools and programs?Then check outthebestpre-med schools, the best graphic design schools, and the best architecture schools.
Thursday, February 13, 2020
- Solar Technology, system, advantages and disadvantages to the world - Research Paper Example earchers began to create applications for military or governmental purposes only, as huge costs of such applications limited existence of its notion for consumer purposes (National Research Council, pp. 111-129, 2000). In specific, the major decisive moment involving studies on solar energy was oil crisis of early 1970s due to lack of support of Arab countries, as they objected to export oil to countries that were supporting Israel in the conflict. Moreover, intervention and support of OAPEC resulted in intensification of such crisis that enforced Western countries to look for other energy sources to fulfill their requirements (SEIA, pp. 1-12, 2008). In the result, Western governments began to finance projects involving prospects of solar technology for commercial purposes, and such efforts have continued to identify and analyze different aspects of the solar technology that can offer cost-effective electricity for commercial, as well as residential purposes. It is an observation that studies related to benefits and drawbacks of solar technology have indicated three focus areas related to the production of electricity from solar energy. In first focus area, thermal energy acquired from the sun is concentrated for running a generator that subsequently generates electricity, and such process of optical concentration of thermal energy is carried out by CSE, also refer as Ã¢â¬Ëconcentrating solar energy.Ã¢â¬â¢ Some of the major examples of such a focus area of solar technology are irrigation, locomotion, etc that are using CSEs to generate electricity for their purposes (SEIA, pp. 1-12, 2008). On the other hand, air or water is heated with the help of absorbers of radiation of sun, acquired through SWL; also refer as solar water heaters. Such heaters are usually present in commercial locations like hotels, malls, etc. The third alternative of generating electricity through solar energy is conversion of sunlight through an electronic procedure with the help of certain
Saturday, February 1, 2020
Isolation, Enumeration, Identification and Confirmation of Food-Poisoning Microbes from Food ( ) - Lab Report Example In our experiment we will test 10g of lettuce for presence of bacteria that presumably caused outbreak of food-poisoning in a local school. Several children have been complaining of diarrhea, abdominal pain and some have started passing blood in their stool. The lettuce was on the menu as a fresh salad 3 days earlier. We will try to conduct microbiological investigation of the bacteria that are present in the lettuce. Then we will identify if there are present any organisms that can cause food born infection. If organisms are found we will try to find the specific group of bacteria. Also we will have to calculate the concentration of these bacteria and made a conclusion if this concentration is sufficient to cause a disease. In order to test for presence for bacteria we will prepare the food sample for examination. The lettuce was placed in Maximum recovery diluent (MRD) which is an isotonic liquid that contains small concentrations of peptone and it is used to maintaining the viability of eventually present organisms in the food. We than placed the lettuce in 90ml of MRD and put it in the stomacher for 30 sec. The stomacher transforms the food sample into homogenous suspension and promotes the releasing the bacteria into the liquid medium (MRD). We than made different dilutions of the suspension (10-1 10-2 10-3 10-4 10-5 and 10-6) and inoculated them on different agar mediums. We used: Nutrition agar that was inoculated with 10-6 dilution of the suspension had 196 colony forming units, and according from the provided guidance, this dilution was used to calculate the colony forming units per gram according to the formula cfu/gram = No. of colonies x 10 x dilution factor. According to the formula the result nutrient agar produced 10140 cfu/gram. The Violet red bile glucose agar (VRBG) that was inoculated with dilution of 10-6
Friday, January 24, 2020
Financiering van de Pleegzorg; De gehele Jeugdzorg, waar Jeugdhulp Friesland en dus Pleegzorg onder valt wordt gesubsidieerd door de overheid. Dit valt onder de gezondheidszorg, per deel van Jeugdhulp is er een budget die wordt ingezet om iedereen te helpen. Als voorbeeld van een activiteit heb ik de reiskostenvergoeding van stagiaires genomen, stagiaires kunnen de gemaakte kosten declareren bij de organisatie. Deze prijs is opgebouwd uit de gemaakte kilometers en welke prijs daaraan verbonden zit. Hoe je reist is ook van invloed op de prijs, als je week-ov hebt krijg je niet betaald omdat jijzelf dan gratis kan reizen. Ieder pleeggezin ontvangt pleegoudervergoeding, deze vergoeding is maandelijks en is bedoeld voor het kind. Hiervan moeten ouders dingen als kleding en bijvoorbeeld slaapspullen. De vergoeding hangt af van de leeftijd van het kind, hieronder is een tabel bijgevoegd waarin de basisbedragen voor elke leeftijdscategorie zijn omschreven. Basisbedragen van de pleegzorg per jeugdige per 1 januari 2013. Leeftijdscategorie Bedrag per maand/per dag 0 t/m 8 jaar Ã¢â ¬ 532/17,50 9 t/m 11 jaar Ã¢â ¬ 538/17,70 12 t/m 15 jaar Ã¢â ¬ 586/19,28 16 t/m 17 jaar Ã¢â ¬ 647/21,28 18 jaar en ouder Ã¢â ¬ 654/21,51 (Pleegzorg Nederland, 2013) Privacy: De privacyregels van Jeugdhulp Friesland staan genoteerd onder de volgende categorieÃ «n: Ã¯ ¶ Informatie verzamelen en vastleggen Ã¯ ¶ Het recht om gegevens in te zien Ã¯ ¶ Het uitgeven van informatie aan andere personen Ã¯ ¶ Het bewaren en vernietigen van gegevens Informatie verzamelen en vastleggen: Alle informatie over een cliÃ «nt wordt vastgelegd in een dossier, in dit dossier staan alle standaardgegevens zoals naam, adres en geboortedatum. De informatie die bij Pleegzorg binnenkomt is afkomstig van ouders/verzorgers ... ...eegzorg bevorderen en in de belangen van pleegouders en Ã¢â¬âkinderen voorzien. (Jeugdhulp Friesland, 2014) Ook heb je de Nederlandse Vereniging voor Pleeggezinnen (NVP), de NVP is een landelijke, onafhankelijke vereniging van en voor pleegouders. De NVP zet zich in voor de belangen van pleegzorg, ze willen de kwaliteit van pleegzorg in Nederland verbeteren. Dit doen ze door middel van ondersteuning, advies en belangenbehartiging voor de pleeggezinnen. (Jeugdhulp Friesland, 2014) Alle partijen binnen Jeugdhulp Friesland communiceren met elkaar, de Raad van Bestuur staat bovenaan en pleegt overleg met de Controller en de Regiodirecteur. Alles wat naar de medewerkers moet worden doorgestuurd wordt door de Regiodirecteur geregeld, deze zorgt ervoor dat de wensen van de Raad van Bestuur door gegeven worden aan de medewerkers. Voor een communicatieoverzicht: Zie bijlage
Thursday, January 16, 2020
ABSTRACT Recent advancements in technology have facilitated commerce around the globe. The online medium of commerce has provided and will continue to provide great opportunities for consumers and businesses. However, there are a number of issues that need to be addressed before the advantages of online shopping can be fully realized. One significant aspect is consumer perception of online shopping. The purpose of this paper is to examine the online shopping perception of consumers who shop from traditional stores. A survey was conducted in shopping malls in the southeastern region of the United States. The results show a positive perception of offline consumers toward online shopping. In addition, the results coincide with national trends for online shopping which show many traditional shoppers gather information on products and services online, but still make the purchase onsite in a traditional setting by visiting a store. Keywords: Perception of shopping, Offline shopping consumers, Online increasing numbers of customers. Many traditional businesses are reacting by going online to remain competitive (Schoenbachler and Gordon 2002). Advancements in technology enable apparel stores, for instance, to improve their online services by using personalized virtual models allowing consumers to visualize the product on the model to determine correct sizing and fit (Kim and Kim 2004; for a trend forecast of the online apparel industry, see: Newbery 2004). In general, online businesses such as Dell are able to mass customize because of current technology and offer customers basically a build-to-order service. Retail based e-commerce sites also try to serve customers by providing a personal shopper. As the shopper searches for an item of interest online, similar or complementing products are suggested. This personal one-on-one customized assistance might require more knowledgeable staff in a traditional store and might require an increase in the costs of products to compensate for the increased staffing costs. The internet has influenced the life of everyone in the recent years and has impacted behavior of consumers (Garrett and Parrott 2005). In general, three types of consumers in regard to their shopping habits can be classified (Lepkowska-White 2004): Online shoppers, i.e. those who purchase regularly online Online browsers, who mainly use the internet as a source of information but prefer to conduct their transactions in traditional stores Hard core offline shoppers, comprised of the continuously diminishing group of individuals, who do not use the resources of the internet either for information gathering or for shopping purposes These different groups show different characteristics and will need to be addressed differently to optimize or initiate online shopping behavior. This study focuses on the traditional consumers who prefer shopping onsite. It is important to know their perception toward online shopping and their classifications of online browsers or hard core offline shoppers. In addition, the factors preventing them from shopping online are important to understand. INTRODUCTION The rise in internet access and online commerce possibilities in recent years has made online shopping a major opportunity for businesses and has changed the way that consumers go about acquiring goods and services (Garrett and Parrott 2005; Schoenbachler and Gordon 2002). For consumers, online shopping provides more flexibility and opportunity (Stafford, Turan, and Raisinghani 2004). For example, consumers can shop with increased knowledge of products through online research and place less reliance on salespersons. If they wish to make a purchase, consumers are not restricted by time, distance, or location (Kim and Kim 2004; Schoenbachler and Gordon 2002). Furthermore, online stores do not incur costs such as store staffing, maintenance, and inventory and might be able to specialize in items and extreme sizes that would not be practical for traditional stores to carry. Amazon and eBay are examples of successful online retailers that use low-priced items and large stocks to attract and retain customers. Online commerce is expanding and is attracting Online Shopping Perceptions of Offline Shoppers The findings of this study should help motivating and encouraging more people to shop online. Reasons for not shopping online might include a lack of interest and knowledge about computers or the internet or going online for research purposes only. The foregoing discussion therefore suggests the following research questions (RQs): RQ1: Are offline shoppers computer and internet literate? RQ2: Do offline shoppers go online? RQ3: Do offline shoppers access the internet for purposes other than purchasing? RQ4: Are there certain distinguishing characteristics between online and traditional shoppers (defined as online browsers and offline shoppers) in regard to online shopping? In order to answer the above RQs the following two major hypotheses are tested. H01: Offline shoppers are computer and internet illiterate H02: Offline shoppers do not go online RELATED LITERATURE The number of internet users and online shoppers are increasing significantly every year. U.S. consumers are spending billions of dollars online each year (Preston-Hubbard, 2004). The internet retail sale is increasing rapidly to the extent that this increase is realized and measured by quarter and not year. (Tamini, Sebastianelli, and Rajan 2005). Currently, many Americans have internet access and the number of households to have access to internet will increase significantly in the years to come (Lepkowska-White 2004). An increasing percentage of those who are currently connected, shop online, i.e. use the internet to complete at least one purchase per month (Lepkowska-White 2004). Similar numbers are available for the European market, where, a significant number of internet users are shopping online (Monsuwe, Dellaert, and Ruyter 2004). For example, in Germany, retail sales of textiles, electronic products and durables via the internet has increased significantly in recent years (Reinhardt 2004). A significantly higher number of individuals, sometimes referred to as online browsers in the literature (e.g. Lepkowska-White 2004), avail themselves of the resources provided by the internet to check products or compare prices (Jaillet 2003). A study by Pew Internet and American Life Project suggests that most online browsers need about one to Volume X, No. 2, 2009 23 three years to become online shoppers (LepkowskaWhite 2004). Depending on how many of those individuals can be turned into online shoppers, predictions for online sales vary widely from $81 billion in 2005 (Bellman, Lohse, and Johnson 1999; Monsuwe, Dellaert, and Ruyter 2004) to as much as $269 billion in 2006 (Lepkowska-White 2004). Consequently, there is a huge market to be explored. However, businesses must be aware of perceptions and concerns regarding online shopping of traditional shoppers, and the online browsers. In order to capitalize on this potential in the best possible way, various models and frameworks for analysis have been presented in the recent literature on the topic (Chiang, Dholakia 2003; Zhou, Chiang, Zhang 2004). Monsuwe, Dellaert, and Ruyter (2004) have suggested a framework for consumersÃ¢â¬â¢ intentions to shop online which draws on the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM), popular in the field of Information Systems. According to this framework, utilitarian dimensions such as usefulness and ease of use of the site and hedonic dimensions such as enjoyment together with the consumerÃ¢â¬â¢s traits shape the consumerÃ¢â¬â¢s attitude towards online shopping. Situational factors trust in online shopping, product characteristics and previous online shopping experience affect the final decision to conclude the transaction online or not. Lepkowska-White (2004) divides variables for the analysis of online shopping behavior into supply and demand factors, with supply factors meaning web design and technical aspects and demand factors referring to consumer factors, such as social interaction, and product/service determinants, such as selection of products available online. Despite different naming conventions, the literature on the topic agrees that the 24/7 availability of products and information about products have changed the retail industry and consumer shopping. Most stores feel they cannot afford not to be online, even if for information purposes only (Schoenbachler and Gordon 2002). Generally, time and location constraints, convenience, availability of products, incentive programs and easy comparison of product information induce shoppers to shop online (Huang, Schrank, Dubinsky 2004; Kim and Kim 2004; Levin, Levin, and Heath 2003). Shoppers are looking for hassle free, accurate transactions, proper display of sufficient information and efficient download times for sites in their online experience (Tamini, Sebastianelli, and Rajan 2005). Regarding price, the literature cites both lower prices as incentives for shopping online (GfK 2004; Girard, Silverblatt, and Korgaonkar 2002; Kim and Kim 2004) as well as a lesser degree of price sensitivity of online shoppers Issues in Information Systems due to the added convenience. In addition, online browsers display a higher degree of price sensitivity compared to online shoppers but lesser degree of time sensitivity (Lepkowska-White 2004). The demographic information on online shoppers is inconsistent in the literature. For example, Kim & Kim (2004), report 43% of their respondents held graduate degrees while 12.41% of respondents in Tamini, Sebastianelli, and RajanÃ¢â¬â¢s (2005) study held graduate degrees. It seems, however, that most online shoppers have a higher level of education and higher incomes, with the average household income of online shoppers expected to be $65,000 by 2006 (Kim and Kim 2004). While currently the majority of online shoppers is aged 44 or under (Kim & Kim 2004), shoppers aged 50 years and over are expected to become a more significant portion of the online shopping population, increasing to 30% by 2006 (Anonymous 2002). Regarding gender, research suggests that while men were early adopters of online shopping behavior, women have caught up and online shopping is starting to display the same gender proportion as offline shopping does (Kim and Kim 2004; Lepkowska-White 2004; Stafford, Turan and Raisinghani 2004; Tamini, Sebastianelli and Rajan 2005; Van Slyke, Comunale, and Belanger 2002). Previous positive experience with online shopping, trust in the company shopped from, and sufficient customer service enhance positive attitudes towards online shopping as well as conviction of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s ability in oneÃ¢â¬â¢s computer skills and access to computers and the internet (Levin, Levin, and Heath 2003). Generally, the greatest obstacles to getting individuals to shop online are hedonic dimensions of the shopping experience, security concerns and a lack of confidence in their computer skills (Swinyard and Smith 2003). The majority of those, who value the social components of the traditional shopping experience, such as interaction with sales people, window shopping, meeting up with peers and friends or the benefit of obtaining the product immediately, spend less time engaging in online shopping (Lepkowska-White 2004). Similarly, despite increased attempts at better security, credit card and personal information security are still a main concern for most shoppers: approximately 500 emails per day report online fraud to the Securities and Exchange Commission and average losses from online fraud have risen from $318 per person in 2000 to $638 in 2001 (Sager and Green 2002; Lepkowska-White 2004). Finally, individuals who do not complete transactions online indicated a lower level of confidence in their computer skills (LepkowskaWhite 2004). Volume X, No. 2, 2009 24 In order to retain current and attract new online customers, online stores should ensure sufficient product information, such as displaying price and the product details as well as a well operational, current, user friendly and easy to download web sites (Chiang and Dholakis 2003). Security and accurate and comprehensive cost information positively skew the customer perception of the online shopping experience as well as good customer service and hassle free return policies (Tamimi, Sebastianelli, and Rajan 2005). Providing free shipping might prove a powerful incentive to increase the number of persons who complete an online purchase: a 2002 study found that shipping costs were the deterrent for 53% of individuals in the US who decided against an online purchase in the last steps of the process (Kim and Kim 2004). METHODOLOGY A survey was randomly administered at shopping malls in the southeastern region of the United States. A survey instrument was developed to determine the perception of consumers who enjoy shopping from traditional stores about online shopping. The survey was not conducted online to better target the offline shoppers. 264 surveys were used for the purpose of data analysis. Fourteen surveys had to be discarded since they were incomplete or instructions had not been followed. The survey consisted of components such as demographics, computer and internet literacy, perception which included attitude and behavior. FINDINGS The largest group of respondents was aged 18-30 (35.7%), and the next largest group was individuals aged 61 and over (28.3%). Of the 264 respondents, 32.6% were male. The most common response, given by slightly less than 30% of the respondents, indicated they were shopping online one to five times per year which further confirms the respondents of this study to be primarily offline shoppers. Online shoppers are assumed to shop online more than once a month (Lepkowska-White 2004). The consumers of this study were overwhelmingly computer literate and had access to the internet (84.5%). However, they were shopping in shopping malls (RQ1). Therefore, H01 is rejected and there is evidence that the offline shoppers of this study are in fact computer and internet literate. Many of them indicated they were going online (RQ2) to collect information and do research on products to be better prepared shoppers before purchasing items in Issues in Information Systems Online Shopping Perceptions of Offline Shoppers traditional stores (72.4%) (RQ3). Only a small number of these consumers purchased the product online (1 to 5 times a year) after they found the searched product (32.3%) (RQ4). Therefore, H02 is also rejected and the contention offline shoppers of this study do in fact go online is supported. It is clear that the consumers of this study shop offline. However, a small number of them 32.3% while searching for information on different products online ended up purchasing the product online one to five times per year (29.7%). These individual cited the following reasons for completing the transaction online and purchasing the product they were researching for online: Familiarity with the online stores, No brick-and-mortar alternative (e-Bay, Amazon), Low-ticketed items. In addition, they considered ease of return the online-purchased item, and they thought the design of website was influential in their decision of finalizing the transaction and purchasing the product online. DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS Online shopping has already influenced shopping patterns and is expected to influence even more in the future with improvements in technology. Online shopping has made shoppers more knowledgeable than ever before. Consumers are becoming more efficient by shopping online and more effective because of ease of information accessibility online. Many shoppers go online for research purpose rather than purchase purpose. Prices and features of products can easily be compared to make an informed purchase decision. Information on products can be obtained from anywhere at anytime. The purchase is then made online or from a more tradition store. Especially for more expensive purchases, shoppers tend to take advantage of the availability of information online, replacing traditional methods of going from store to store in order to compare prices and look for the best buy. Consumers in this study as expected were mainly offline shoppers who were browsing the internet for information. They were computer literate and had access to the internet. This study reveals a positive attitude toward online shopping by those consumers who still like traditional stores. The consumers of this study are mostly in low and high age groups. It is possible that these consumer groups place a stronger emphasis on the social aspects of offline shopping and have more time to spend in traditional stores and malls and value the offline shopping experience for social reasons, such as meeting with friends. These consumers are technology oriented and take advantage of technology and the inter net to educate themselves about products of interest and then purchase them from traditional stores. CONCLUSION, LIMITATIONS, AND FUTURE WORKS Online shopping is a relatively new experience and has greatly impacted the lives of consumers in its short time of existence (Garrett & Parrott 2005). It is expected to grow constantly in years to come with more advancement in technology. Online shopping has made consumers more effective and efficient in their shopping behavior and has driven businesses to a new level, forcing many to make the necessary adjustments and changes to reach the new market of knowledgeable consumers (Lepkowska-White 2004; Schaupp and BÃ ©langer 2005). TomorrowÃ¢â¬â¢s consumers include todayÃ¢â¬â¢s elementary and secondary school students who grow up using browsers and search tools in order to retrieve information from global resources. The offline shoppers of this study indicated a positive perception of online shopping. These offline shoppers collected the necessary information online to facilitate their offline shopping, and it seems they are not too far away from completing the transaction and making the purchase online. It is important for businesses to find the online analogy of factors that make customers buy in a brick-and-mortar setting (Lepkowska-White 2004). Future studies should look into the factors preventing the current offline shoppers and online browsers from completing the transaction online after they have gained more knowledge about the product of interest. Factors encouraging individuals to complete a transaction online should be investigated. Future studies should also focus on what needs to be done in order to make the idea of online shopping in general more appealing to offline shoppers to turn more offline shoppers into online shoppers. In addition, perception of online shoppers toward traditional stores and onsite shopping should be considered. A perception comparison of online and offline shoppers on the internet and online shopping in general would facilitate understanding of restraining and motivational factors in online shopping. This survey was conducted in one region and future works should focus on different regions and classifications of consumers based on demographic make up such as age, income, and occupation. Cultural differences and online shopping would also be a good factor to examine (see for instance: Bin, Chen, and Sun 2003; Stafford, Turan and Raisinghani 2004). REFERENCES 1. Anonymous, 2002, Online Shoppers Grow Up Marketing Management, 11(3), 4. Bellman, S, G. L. Lohse, and E. J. Johnson, 1999, Predictors of Online Buying Behavior, Communications of the ACM, 42(12), 32-38. Bin, Q., C. Shu-Jen and S. Sun, 2003, Cultural Differences in E-Commerce: A Comparison Between the U.S. and China, Journal of Global Information Management, 11(2), 48-56. Chiang, K. and Ruby R. Dholakia, 2003, Factors Driving Consumer Intention to Shop Online: An Empirical Investigation, Journal of Consumer Psychology, 13(1, 2), 98-105. 4. Garrett, G. and G. Parrott, 2005, E-Business: Understanding Key Trends and Applying Best Practices, Contract Management, 45(7), 34-42. GfK Group, 2004, Market for Online Shopping Grows, Retrieved from: http://www.gfk.com/english/presse/pressemeldun g/contentdetail.php Girard, T., R. Silverblatt, and P. Korgaonkar, 2002, Influence of Product Class on Preference for Shopping on the Internet, Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 8, 1-22. Huan g, W., H. Schrank and A.J. Dubinsky, 2004, Effect of Brand Name on ConsumersÃ¢â¬â¢ Risk Perceptions of Online Shopping, Journal of Consumer Behavior, 4(1), 40-51. Jaillet, H.F., 2003, Web Metrics: Measuring Patterns in Online Shopping, Journal of Consumer Behavior, 2(4), 369-382. Kim E.Y. and Y. Kim., 2004, Predicting Online Purchase Intentions for Clothing Products, European Journal of Marketing, 38(7), 883-898. 12. Newbery, M., 2004, Trends in Apparel Online Retailing, Forecasts to 2010, Just in Style, 1-8. 13. Monsuwe, Perea y, T., B. Dellaert and K. de Ruyter, 2004, What Drives Consumers to Shop Online? A Literature Review, International Journal of Service Industry Management, 15(1), 102-122. 14. Preston-Hubbard, H. April 17, 2004, Growth Drives Revival in Internet Shares, International Herald Tribune. 15. Reinhardt, A., 2004, Europe Hits the E-Mall, Business Newsweek, 51-52. 16. Sager, I. and H. Green, 2002, So Where Are All the Bargains?, Business Week, 162-164. 17. Schaupp, L. and F. BÃ ©langer, 2005, A Conjoint Analysis of Online Consumer Satisfaction, Journal of Electronic Consumer Research, 6(2), 95-111. 18. Schoenbachler, D. and G. Gordon, 2002, Multichannel Shopping: Understanding What Drives Channel Choice, The Journal of Consumer Marketing, 19(1), 42-54. 19. Stafford, T.H., A. Turan and M. Raisinghani, 2004, International and Cross-Cultural Influences on Online Shopping Behavior, Journal of Global Information Technology Management, 7(2), 70-88. 20. Swinyard, W. R. and S. M. Smith, 2003, Why People (DonÃ¢â¬â¢t) shop Online: A Lifestyle Study of the Internet Consumer, Psychology and Marketing, 20, 567-597. 21. Tamimi, N., Sebastianelli, R. & Rajan M., 2005, What Do Online Customers Value?, Quality Progress, 38(7), 35-40.
Wednesday, January 8, 2020
Alexius Sparkman Dr. Ernest Williamson III English 101 30 November 2016 Iago In William Shakespeare s Othello, Iago s character is perhaps the most appalling scalawag. Oxford s Dictionary characterizes miscreant as an, an evil individual; boss insidious character in a play or a story (Oxford 740). Iago plays the antiquated of Othello, who is the general of the Venetian powers. As an old, Iago is to be an unwavering worker to Othello. In any case, Iago has developed intense and scornful and utilizes his gathered steadfastness as a wedge to bring about Othello s end. He s captivating for his most ghastly trademark; his articulate absence of persuading inspiration for his activities. He is additionally a man who is fit for a cool deception, nonsensical disdain, and numerous malicious demonstrations, which he can plot them effortlessly. As per Stopford A. Brooke, it is a huge personality that had touched base by chance in the body of a non-authorized officer (Brooke 444). Iago has an advanced method for misleading the characters of the play, making him an extremely astute individual. Right on time in the play, Othello acquaints him with the duke of Venice as, my old/a man he is of genuineness and trust (I.iii.284-85). All through the play Iago is thought to be straightforward, yet is fact the reprobate. Keeping in mind the end goal to keep up the false picture one needs to have a dumbfounding character. Othello s neglecting of Iago for the position ofShow MoreRelatedOthello : William Shakespeare s Othello2542 Words Ã |Ã 11 Pages3 March 2015 Othello Introduction Shakespeare is the second most quoted writer in the English language Ã¢â¬â after the various writers of the Bible. Many of ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s ideas for the play Othello came from a collection of tales written by Giraldi Cinthio. In Othello the character of Iago acts as the prominent main character throughout the play, even though he plays the role of the antagonist to the other central characters in the comedy Iago is the tragic hero. ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s Othello was not justRead MoreOthello By William Shakespeare s Othello Essay1230 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages Previously, in Act 3.4, Othello begins to suspect DesdemonaÃ¢â¬â¢s loyalty, as he continuously asks Desdemona for the handkerchief, yet she keeps on changing the topic. In Act 4.1, Iago continues to convince Othello of DesdemonaÃ¢â¬â¢s faithfulness. In Act 3.4, Othello defended Desdemona when Iago accused her; but in Act 4.1, their position is switched. Othello becomes more aware of what Iago is saying and the anger t hat he has towards Iago has significantly reduced, while he begins to doubt Desdemona.Read MoreWilliam Shakespeare s Othello And Othello1720 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesDejenara Williams Ms.Milliner EES21QH-04 January ,18,2017 In this world there are two different types of people. There are those with a fixed mindset and others with a growth mindset . Each of these mindset involve different personality and characteristics. This may create a different outlook on life, meaning different morals and actions. Which happens to come into play while reading shakespeare s Othello. Most of the characters , maybe even all fit into either categories. CharactersRead MoreAnalysis Of Othello s Othello By William Shakespeare Essay2117 Words Ã |Ã 9 Pages Racist Ideology As Seen In Othello As a writer, William Shakespeare possessed an uncanny ability to address topics that were, for the most part, unnoticed in society. Every one of his characters feels realistic because they are so complex and based on psychological motivations. When ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s Othello was first written, there was undoubtedly a complicated relationship between white English citizens and so called Ã¢â¬Å"foreignersÃ¢â¬ . However, societyÃ¢â¬â¢s inability to understand or accept different culturesRead MoreOthello s Othello By William Shakespeare897 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesIagoÃ¢â¬â¢s main reason to denigrate DesdemonaÃ¢â¬â¢s character is his love for Othello. Consequently, he will do anything to gain OthelloÃ¢â¬â¢s admiration. When Iago is putting his plan into action and planting in OthelloÃ¢â¬â¢s mind that Desdemona is not faithful to him, Iago says: Othello kneels .............................................................................................. IAGO: Do not rise yet. Iago kneels Witness, you ever-burning lights above, You elements that clip us round above, Witness thatRead MoreOthello s Othello By William Shakespeare848 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages DesdemonaÃ¢â¬â¢s Passivity [In the ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s play Ã¢â¬Å"OthelloÃ¢â¬ ] Desdemona is a passive character in the Shakespeare play Ã¢â¬Å"OthelloÃ¢â¬ . We can identify this as a fault in Desdemona, in various acts and scenes throughout the play. A critic had stated that Ã¢â¬Å"Desdemona is passive, acted upon rather than acting.Ã¢â¬ This is a valid statement which is noticeable in DesdemonaÃ¢â¬â¢s character. When Desdemona argues CassioÃ¢â¬â¢s position that Othello stripped from him. We see from this that she could have actedRead MoreWilliam Shakespeare s Othello 1386 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesblood-crimson of lust and the jade-green of jealously are but two of the vast palate required to paint this inescapable human passion. William ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s store of colors is unrivaled. No human failing, foible or foolishness escapes his gentle, comedic reproof. He equally enjoins his audience to venture as bravely as he does into the palpable horror of love gone amiss. In Ã¢â¬Å"OTHELLO,Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"MACBETH,Ã¢â¬ and many more dramas, l oveÃ¢â¬â¢s fatal potential to provoke vengeance or the quest for earthly power is powerfully feltRead MoreOthello By William Shakespeare s Othello1209 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesOthello Down Shakespeare s Othello comprises of the subjects betrayal, affection and dishonesty. At the focal point of this play is the lamentable ruin of Othello because of his so-called friend Iago. In this paper I will be examining the explanations behind and against Othello being in charge of his defeat through taking a gander at critical interpretations of his character and activities. 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If you were like me in high school, this essay might be ab le to help hone your ability to see these symbolisms easier. This analysis will go over the strong religion behind the play of Everyman, and the idea of Ã¢â¬Å"the OtherÃ¢â¬ in the play Othello. The play of Everyman starts out with a messenger, and he demands everyone to settle down so they can