Friday, August 21, 2020

Language And Literacy For Early Childhood †

Question: Talk about the Language And Literacy For Early Childhood. Answer: Presentation Language is the essential and essential type of specialized strategy in human civilisation (Whitebread Coltman, 2015). Language has created since the early ancient ages, as man comprehended the need of a propelled specialized technique to stay in the opposition for endurance (Barrett, 2016). Language is soaked up in the person since their introduction to the world. The principal securing of language happens in the early age when the guardians begin addressing the kid in the local language or essential language. The local or the essential language is otherwise called the L1. The kid as he advances towards his age where he begins talking great in the L1 or the first language as it is called, there is attempt from the guardians to send that person to class and learn increasingly number of dialects (Wang, 2014). The second language that an individual learns subsequent to procuring the primary language, is otherwise called the L2 or the auxiliary language (Saville-Troike Barto, 2016). There are various perspectives and hypotheses about the language securing and learning. The behaviorist view expresses that it is a mechanical procedure to learn and assimilate dialects, which can be demonstrated by the Skinner box analyze where a rodent is prepared to precisely press a bar in improvement to a light, the squeezing clears a path for food to drop in (Skinner, 1990). The youngsters also get familiar with the way toward crying and consequently getting food, or articulating a specific word and getting wanted outcomes. The Nativist hypothesis then again proposes that a youngster from the earliest starting point of is advancement of perception a kid has the inbuilt capacity to comprehend the laws of the language and begin getting it (Saxton, 2017). The Cognitivist see expresses that the kid experiences a few phases to get familiar with a language yet there is a distinction of procuring ability among various people. In this exposition there will be a nitty gritty writing audit about the significance of improvement of language in writing in youth, and a meeting with an accomplished educator about a similar point, which will illuminate various perspectives remembering perusing exercises for homeroom, techniques used to prepare understudies and the methodologies. Conversation The writing audit of various related diaries, articles and investigates prompts away from and comprehension of the subject. In the article Language advancement in the early school years: The significance of cozy associations with educators the writers have called attention to that a passionate bond between the instructor and the understudies is vital for a compelling improvement of language aptitudes among the understudies (Spilt, Koomen, Harrison, 2015). The understudies who get a passionate help will in general respond by learning snappier and in a superior manner. Students who feel like home in their schools are substantially more keen on setting off to the schools and taking an interest in learning exercises. The understudies who feel separated would normally grow low premiums in learning. In the article Adolescence as a touchy time of mental health the writers bring up how learning is best in the early pre-adulthood as this is the most vital stage in the development of cerebrum, and the subjective capacities of the kids increment impressively (Fuhrmann, Knoll Blakemore, 2015). The cerebrums movement of gaining new information and making oneself perfect with the procured information begins from the very adolescence, subsequently it is fitting for the guardians and the instructors to guzzle language preparing into the youngsters at an early age. Rodrguez (2017) in his article Perception of Pragmalinguistic Knowledge in Primary Spanish Teacher Training Students of English as a Foreign Language has expressed what is the job of perusing movement in procuring a subsequent language. Education not just contains the local language of the individual, however different dialects that an individual adapts continuously. Second language assumes a significant job in a people proficiency in light of the fact that the subsequent language is obtained with a reason for utilizing it in the expert field. It is broke down that how the way to express the primary language or the native language affects the procuring and talking about the subsequent language. The English educators in the schools of Spain, both essential and optional, generally gives significance on syntactic parts of the language, yet it is perceived how spoken perspectives are similarly significant. In the article Reading perception procedures in auxiliary substance region study halls: Teacher utilization of and perspectives towards perusing understanding guidance the writer has brought up how recurrence of understanding exercises and cognizance guidance in the study halls help understudies insight, the investigation has been done in social examination and science classes (Ness, 2016). It is seen that instructors frequently whine about how an excessive amount of weight of finishing the scholastic prospectuses makes it hard for them to take up perusing exercises inside the homerooms. The exploration uncovered how perusing exercises are useful in creating thorough scholarly comprehension among the understudies. Education is the fundamental capacity to peruse and comprehend composed materials, and complete perusing exercises help in boosting the understudies capacity to comprehend composed material. The article Exploring the connection between youths understanding aptitudes, understanding inspiration and perusing propensities by writers McGeown et al., (2015), has demonstrated how the teenagers understanding practices and decision of perusing influence their abstract position. Education is as referenced over the capacity to appreciate composed materials or recreate them. The decision of perusing normally influences the impression of writing in the childs cerebrum which at that point shapes the artistic remaining of the kid. The inspiration a kid has about perusing is likewise useful during the time spent building up the speed and expert articulation of perusing. The writers express that the teenagers perusing aptitudes assume a significant job in their instructive achievement. A meeting was directed with an educator of a preschool. The transcript proof of the meeting is as per the following. QuestionWhat is the recognition and assessment of the educators about the significance of perusing among the youngsters in building up their artistic aptitudes? Answer of the TeacherIt is significant for the understudies of exceptionally more youthful age gathering to soak up enthusiasm for perusing exercises as it builds up the general abstract insight among the understudies. Perusing makes ideas understood and improves understanding while at the same time creating expressiveness. QuestionWhat are sorts of perusing exercises that are taken up in the homerooms? Answer of the TeacherThe exercises which are instructed to the understudy are verbally let them know at the outset to give them an unmistakable comprehension about the subject. The understudies are then required to peruse portions of the exercises boisterously while others tune in. At that point a general conversation on the subject is led and the comprehension of the understudies are reflected in that bunch conversation. Aside from that there are classes committed to spoken and oral parts of language. In these classes there are conceptualizing exercises and impromptu talks where understudies are required to contemplate irregular subjects. Pictures which are of unique nature are appeared to them about which they are required to talk inventively utilizing their feelings. At times a passage is given to them for perusing arbitrarily then they are required to clarify the equivalent in their own language. QuestionWhat is the technique for appraisal used to assess the understudies in the homerooms? Answer of the TeacherThere are two separate frameworks of appraisal followed in the study halls. One evaluation technique is committed to the scholastic movement of the understudies and their presentation in the term assessments. The other appraisal thinks about the general development of the understudy and remembers their improvement for cognizance, scholarly understanding, and understanding aptitudes. This is finished by holding every single understudy under close checking all through the scholastic year and understanding their necessities intently. The subsequent evaluation is case touchy and is redone as indicated by the need of the individual understudy. QuestionWhat is the impact of the perusing exercises in language improvement and education among youthful understudies? Answer of the teacherHuman creatures from the birth creates proclivity towards orally transmitting their message. Oral advancement of correspondence happens first after which further improvement in composed correspondence is accomplished. Composed correspondence enables ascend to peruse and fathom printed data which is essential measure for getting the hang of everything without exception on earth. Along these lines, it is regular that all the more perusing exercises in the homeroom will be useful in creating language and education among the understudies. Understudies and kids learn language by the impact of the individuals around them, including their folks, instructors, and companions. The techniques followed in the class comprehensive intuitive procedures like conversation, supposition sharing and question answers which ends up being exceptionally viable in comprehension and learning of dialects. In view of the above meeting with the educator the accompanying report is created which involves the rundown of different perusing exercises in the homeroom and their investigation and assessment dependent on their effect on the advancement of proficiency among kids. The rundown of the kinds of perusing exercises in the homeroom The perusing exercises in the homeroom as told by the educator during the meeting contains five exercises which are perusing of sections uproariously to the class, bunch conversation in the wake of perusing portions of the passages, perusing an irregular section and clarifying its importance, impromptu discourses in the wake of perusing a theme, and taking a gander at pictures and afterward utilizing creat

Sunday, July 12, 2020

Charismatic Leadership Guide Definition, Qualities, Pros Cons, Examples

Charismatic Leadership Guide Definition, Qualities, Pros Cons, Examples “Motivation is everything. You can do the work of two people, but you can’t be two people. Instead you have to inspire the next guy down the line and get him to inspire his people. â€" Lee IacoccaYou’ve probably met a person who oozed of charisma. The almost-indescribable characteristic is something we associate with other leaders, while we consider some people simply lacking it. More often than not, charismatic leaders are considered powerful orators with a clear vision. © Shutterstock | MooshnyBut what is charismatic leadership about? In this guide, we’ll explore the theories that gave birth to this leadership style from Weber to House. We’ll also look at the core elements of charismatic leadership theory and analyze the characteristics leaders need to possess in order to be considered charismatic. Finally, we’ll explore the advantages and disadvantages of the style before examining a few examples of the style.UNDERSTANDING THE DIFFERENT CONTEXT OF CHARISMATIC LEADERSHIPCharisma is a trait often associated with leaders and the world is full of examples of people being described as charismatic leaders. The term charismatic comes from the ancient Greek word charis, which means grace, kindness and life. Charismatic people are considered as graceful and virtuous. The idea of using one’s charisma and influence in order to lead is not a new way of looking at leadership, although the theories around it are rather recent.In this section, we’ll ex plore the idea of charismatic leadership through its past and present contexts.The historical contextThe idea of a strong and noble leader, who relies on personal characteristics, has been present in history. People have attributed and associated great personalities with the ability to rule in a good manner ever since the dawn of time.In terms of crafting a proper leadership theory, the two biggest influencing theories behind charismatic theory have been developed by Max Weber and Robert J. House.Max Weber’s charismatic leadershipThe charismatic theory’s driving force is Max Weber’s study on political obligation. The German sociologist explored the reasons people follow authority and the findings were published posthumously in 1922 in Economy and Society.Weber moved away from the classical thinking that authority is achieved through the three routes:Self-interest â€" You obey for material or economic gainFear â€" You follow the rules because you don’t want the punishmentHabi t â€" You obey simply out of the socialization of authorityInstead, Weber thought people follow a leader or a state because they evaluate the authority and perceive it good, right or just form of power. Therefore, the leader’s legitimacy is subjective to each subordinate.From the above ideas, Weber distinguished three models of legitimate leadership, summed up in the below image: Alberto Veira Ramos, SlideplayerWeber’s idea of charisma was value-free and more about the appearance of charisma rather than making specific value judgments. He writes in the book how charisma “knows no formal and regulated appointment or dismissal, no career, advancement, or salary, no supervisory or appeals body, no local or purely technical jurisdiction, and no permanent institutions in the manner of bureaucratic agencies”. Charismatic leaders are almost savior like and people follow them as they are perceived to put things right.Charismatic leadership relies on three components in Weber’s theory. There is the psychological dimension, which refers to the inner qualities of the leader. Weber talks about the trait being a “gift” of the leader, claiming it could be either a divine trait or a specific physical or mental state of being. But since charisma to Weber, is value-free and created by the subordinates’ assumptions, there is no detailed explanation on the origins of charisma.The second dimension is about the social aspect. Charismatic leadership might not stem purely out of one’s inner being, but have a social source. This could be the cultural influence of society, family, work or even education. Charisma essentially takes on a traditional form and legitimizes its source. The impersonal nature of charisma implies that it can be taught, according to Weber.Finally, Weber’s theory also has a relational dimension between the leader and the subordinate. According to Weber, charisma is the “affectual relationship between leader and followers developing as the historical product of the interaction between person and situation”. A leader has to prove his or her worth and the charisma in order to continue to enjoy legitimacy. Charismatic leadership is therefore relational because the subordinates can withdraw their support, leading the leader without legitimacy to rule.Interestingly, Weber’s charismatic leader carried its own demise and t he legitimate authority of a charismatic leader was something he didn’t think could last. This was because it changed the system it was operating in and removed the traditional justification of authority around it. According to Weber, charismatic leadership would be hard to routinize and therefore, it created succession issues in organizations or the state.Interested in learning why we as humans are prone to falling for charismatic leaders? Watch this TED talk. Robert J. House’s charismatic leadershipWeber’s ideas of charismatic leadership were theoretical and the conversation that followed around the topic tended to be speculative in nature. In 1976, Robert J. House published his working paper A 1976 theory of charismatic leadership, which aimed to move the theory to a more testable concept. House moved the charismatic leadership theory more towards a psychological explanation, rather than a sociological or political science theory of power.House’s main argument was that ch arismatic leadership is rooted in personal and behavioral characteristics and the leaders with these qualities can inspire subordinates through appropriate articulation of the organizational vision. Therefore, it follows the similar notion of Weber that charismatic leaders don’t receive authority out of fear or financial gain, but out of emotional excitement.To communicate the vision to subordinates, charismatic leaders need to showcase high levels of self-confidence, dominance, influence and strong conviction. Furthermore, certain situational and organization factors can help boost the leadership’s appearance. These assumptions and characteristics will be discussed further in the following sections.The main takeaway from House’s theory is that charismatic leadership should not be defined solely in terms of the effects it has on followers. Instead, House looked more towards the behaviors and the situational factors that influence the effectiveness of charismatic leaders.The mo dern contextThe above two theories have largely shaped the conversation around charismatic leadership, providing the theory with context and testable characteristics. The two theories, along with other research on the leadership model, have revived the trait-based approach to leadership.Since charismatic leadership is linked with personal traits and the transformation of subordinates, the current conversation around the model often links it with transformational leadership theory. Both of these theories seek radical changes around the organizational structure they operate in, yet there are certain important differences between the two.While charisma can improve the effectiveness of leadership, transformational leaders don’t necessarily have to be perceived as charismatic in order to rule efficiently. Furthermore, transformational leadership always has change at the heart of it, whereas charismatic leadership might not be interested in changing the operational structure of the orga nization.Nonetheless, in current literature, charismatic leadership has assumed a more benevolent approach to leadership. Instead of focusing on a strong moral conviction and the personality traits of the leader, the inclusion of transformational elements has added a behavior element to the theory.Aside from linking charismatic leadership with other leadership styles, such as transformational and inspirational leadership, the focus has also moved even more towards the emotional, inspirational and symbolic aspects of the leadership’s ability to influence. In 2007, J. C. Pastor, M. Mayo and B. Shamir’s research found the emotional responses of the subordinates influence the perception of the leader as charismatic. Furthermore, it isn’t purely about the leader’s apparent qualities, but the characteristics of the subordinates can influence how effective charismatic leaders are.Ronald E. Riggio, PhD and professor of leadership and organizational psychology, summed up the current idea of charismatic leadership well in his 2012 article. Riggio defined charismatic leaders as “individuals who are both verbally eloquent, but also able to communicate to followers on a deep, emotional level.” Charismatic leadership is about creating a vision and captivating people emotionally with the message.THE CORE ELEMENTS OF CHARISMATIC LEADERSHIPThe above touched on the context and approach to charismatic leadership. It’s now time to consider the core elements of the leadership model and how they drive the above ideas forward.Organizational and situational assumptionsHouse’s 1976 essay on charismatic leadership outlined key assumptions regarding the leadership model. The assumptions rely on the idea that charismatic leadership relies on the behavioral, situational and organizational factors.First, charismatic leadership requires the leader to showcase behaviors, which create an impression of competence and success. In short, the leadership requires a strong goal arti culation. D. Berlew wrote in Leadership and Organization Excitement in 1974 that, “The first requirement for…charismatic leadership is a common or shared vision for what the future could be.“ A good example of this would be Martin Luther Kings, “I have a dream”. The speech and idea provided subordinates a vision of the future, the leader would want them to accomplish together. According to House, the goal articulation is more often about ideology rather than pragmatism.For successful goal articulation to appear, a charismatic leadership theory requires the use of motive arousal. This means the goal and vision put forward by the leader must create an emotional appeal and spark off the right type of motivational response. House points out to the example of military leaders, who use authoritarian symbolism and images of the enemy in order to excite the followers. He gives the example of the US military leader, Patton, who addressed recruits “against the background of a larg e American flag, and dressed with medals of his accomplishments and wearing a shining helmet displaying the four stars indicating the status of general.”The motive arousal aspect of charismatic leadership requires an understanding and an analysis of the task and the subordinates’ need for achievement, affiliation and power. The effectiveness to accomplish tasks can therefore be manipulated by the leader’s ability to arouse the right motives. House summarized studies, which had found the following assumptions:Task requirementsThe correct motive arousalAssumption of calculated risksAchievement oriented initiativeAssumption of personal responsibilityPersistence toward challenging goalsThe need for achievementBeing persuasiveAsserting influenceExercising control over othersBeing competitive or combativeThe need for powerAffiliative behaviorCohesivenessTeam workPeer supportThe need for affiliationFinally, charismatic leadership requires specific situational determinants. For Weber, charismatic leadership is born out of a stressful situation. The vision outlined by the leader is likely something difficult or impossible to achieve, yet which creates the right motive arousal in leaders, enforcing the idea of the charismatic leader as the ‘savior’. An example could be Mahatma Ghandi in India during the Indian independence movement. In a business environment a failing company might benefit from a charismatic leader who creates a vision of a better future for subordinates.But stressful disasters are not the only situational determinant charismatic leadership can use as an advantage. Edward Shils’ 1965 paper Charisma, Order, and Status identified the formal institutions of society, with large amounts of power, being something that could be perceived charismatic. In essence, the idea of the “awe-inspiring quality of power” can integrate a vision and therefore, become seen as charismatic.Behavioral assumptionsFor the above characteristics of charismatic lead ership to work efficiently, the behavior of the leader must be aligned with the assumptions. Charismatic leadership model emphasizes the behavioral assumptions as the key.As mentioned in the previous section, House outlined the four qualities of a charismatic leader. These were:DominantStrong desire to influence others.Self-confident.Strong sense of one’s own moral values.Interestingly, charismatic leaders are not just interested or relying on showcasing the above qualities themselves, but rather they behave in a way that supports role-modeling behavior. Essentially this means charismatic leadership wants subordinates to adopt the behaviour of the leader.Role-modeling has been shown by studies to have a strong effect on influencing other people. An authoritative figure can get subjects to administer pain to other people and people can adopt biased or racist attitudes from leaders. But naturally, role-modeling could be used for positive change and behavior as well. In a corporate e nvironment, role-modeling could work as a method of improving employee motivation. According to House’s analysis, “leaders can have an effect on the values (or valences) subordinates’ attach to the outcomes of their effort as well as their expectations”.From the above idea follows another crucial behavioral aspect of the charismatic leader. The leader should focus on engaging in behaviors, which create the impression of competence and success. Weber mentioned in his book how charismatic leaders are required to prove their power to the subordinates. While accomplishments are generally the easiest way to do this, the idea of appearance will also help charismatic leaders. This appearance assumption links closely with the above idea of goal articulation.A very nice chat around how to become a better leader. The best way to create the impression is often through high expectations and strong self-confidence. Studies have shown your self-esteem level and the expectation of being ab le to achieve a goal relate to motivation and goal attainment. In charismatic leadership, the leader has a role of improving the subordinate’s self-esteem in order to improve organizational effectiveness.A leader must not only set high-expectations, but also show confidence in the subordinate’s ability to get things done. The behavioral assumption is associated with the above motive arousal. As shown earlier, specific tasks require the leader to use specific motivational influences in order to get the best out of subordinates. Furthermore, House drew two hypotheses out of the assumptions:If leaders set specific and high expectations, then the goals of subordinates are clearer.If the leader shows more confidence in the subordinate’s ability to achieve those goals, then the person will perceive them more attainable.Therefore, charismatic leadership works most efficiently when leaders are able to instill confidence and self-esteem to subordinates, which means subordinates are mor e inclined to achieve objectives and thus trust the leader further.THE QUALITIES OF CHARISMATIC LEADERSince charismatic leadership is heavily focused on the behaviour and personality of the leader, it comes as no surprise that the qualities and traits required of a charismatic leader are at the centre of the theory. We’ve already touched upon some of the traits through House’s theory (dominant, self-confident, self-assured and strong conviction), but further research has identified other characteristics as well.After examining the key traits of a charismatic leader, we’ll also consider the steps you should take if you’d like to use this leadership model.The key characteristicsIn 1988, Jay Conger and Rabindra Kanungo published Charismatic Leadership, which outlined the key characteristics of a charismatic leader. The findings have been repeatedly shown to be accurate in a number of other similar studies, such as Robert House and Jane Howell’s 1992 paper Personality and Char ismatic Leadership.One thing charismatic leadership emphasizes is the nature of your charisma. While it might seem charisma is a ‘natural’ quality you either have or don’t have, the reality is that many charismatic qualities can be learned and reinforced.#1 VisionaryMartin Luther King dreamt of a society where everyone is equal, Gandhi wanted different religions to live in peace in India and Sir Winston Churchill wanted the British to stay resilient during the war. Every charismatic leader has a vision â€" they are able to look beyond the horizon and imagine a different way of doing things. Obviously, it doesn’t mean everyone has to imagine a society-wide change or movement, but you have to have a vision of what you want to achieve or what you want the organization you lead to accomplish.Being a visionary means being open to chance and understanding that constant improvement is required for progress. You need to embark on a road of self-improvement, where you are constantly looking to expand your skills and learning things beyond your comfort zone. In addition, you need to listen to other people and understand how their experiences have shaped them. If you can combine your understanding of the world, with the experiences of others, you can visualise new solutions and approaches to solving things.Visionary people are both dreamers and doers. You want to spend enough time thinking about the world and the problems you face. But you don’t want to be caught daydreaming, while other people fix the problems.This video shows you how to develop your vision statement and inspire your subordinates. #2 ArticulateCharismatic people are good communicators. In order to get people on your side â€" to understand your vision and to believe in it â€" you have to be able to share the message loud and clear. If you aren’t articulate, your subordinates won’t be able to understand what you are envisioning.There are two key aspects of articulation in terms of charismati c leadership. First, it simply means being a better communicator and being able to talk about complex issues to people in a way they understand. In the business world, the key is to explain the why, the how, and the when. You need to explain the reason or the vision behind the action, clarify what is needed in order to get to the objective and ensure people know how fast this all should be accomplished.But the second aspect of articulation and communication relates to the understanding of your subordinates. Charismatic leadership requires you to be able to read people and select the right motivations for inspiring them. Therefore, you need to be able to analyze your audience and select the right communication style for each occasion.If you’d like to improve your own communication abilities, especially in terms of getting your message across, watch the below YouTube clip. On it, Julian Treasure explains how to speak in a way that ensures people listen. #3 SensitiveCharismatic leade rs must be sensitive, both in reading people’s emotions and ambitions, but also in showing them compassion and empathy. As mentioned above, you must be able to sense the other person’s expectations and needs in order to properly approach them with your vision. In short, you need to be able to sense the mood and be able to adjust to it.In addition, you must also show humility and compassion. When you listen to people, you need to convince them you are there to help and you understand what the person is saying. Even if you can’t do what the person might want you to do, you need to be able to convince them to work in a specific way and make them feel like its their best interest as well.The charismatic leader who can show compassion towards subordinates is the leader that gets people on his or her side. Since you require subordinates to buy into your vision, you need to show respect and empathy towards them. People follow leaders who make them feel good and important, instead of someone who doesn’t listen to them.#4 Risk-takerJust as you need to be a visionary, you must be willing to take risks as well. Because you are trying to obtain a visionary goal, something transformative and different, you won’t have a paved out road ahead of you. In order to accomplish great things, charismatic leadership requires you to put yourself on the line.Risk-taking means two things. First, as a leader, you are accountable for any problems that might arise. You aren’t afraid to step out of the way if things don’t work out and you won’t try to place the blame elsewhere.But in addition, you aren’t afraid of challenges either. You understand that each challenge will bring about positive things, whether or not you accomplish what you set out to do. You are ready to give it your best shot because you can see the rewards of accomplishing things, while realizing failure isn’t the end of the world.In business, risk-taking isn’t the same as gambling. Risk-takers don†™t just rush into things and hope for the best and neither do charismatic leaders. You understand the importance of analyzing tasks and the options ahead of you, but you are willing to take calculated risks if the situation calls for it.Listen to Stephen Kelly (CEO of Sage) on what he has to say on taking smart risks. #5 CreativeFinally, charismatic leaders tend to be creative. In order to be more visionary, you naturally need a healthy dose of creativity. You must be able to think outside of the box in order to create meaningful change in the organization.Creativity is further linked to the charismatic leadership’s idea of strong conviction. You need to be able to speak with conviction â€" meaning that you need to use creative images, rhetoric and messaging in order to get others to buy into your vision.If you’d like to improve your ability to be more creative and to stand out from the crowd, you should try these five scientifically proven tips (BBC Science):Change how you do t hings â€" Altering your daily routines can help you because more innovative.Removing distractions â€" You should try to create an environment around you which doesn’t have distractions â€" visual or audio -.Spend time on mundane tasks â€" You can spark your creative mind by engaging in tasks, which require less thinking.Improvising and taking risks â€" Risk-taking can boost creativity together with improvisation. If you can play an instrument or you like drawing, spend some time doing it without an objective in mind.Allowing your mind to wander â€" You shouldn’t be afraid to just sit around and allow your mind to think freely.How to become a charismatic leaderOne thing charismatic leadership emphasizes is the nature of your charisma. While it might seem charisma is a ‘natural’ quality you either have or don’t have, the reality is that many charismatic qualities can be learned and reinforced. Joyce Newman, president of the Newman Group, told in a Forbes interview, “We are not born charismatic â€" we cultivate it in many ways”. Furthermore, Joyce pointed out that becoming charismatic is a “trial and error process” and “once you have your charismatic status, you can lose it”.In his 1989 book The Charismatic Leader: Behind the Mystique of Exceptional Leadership, Jay Conger proposed a four-step model for charismatic leadership. The model is a good guide for anyone looking to improve his or her charismatic leader characteristics.Step 1: Regularly assessing your vision and the environment for achieving itFirst, you need to create a vision, which fits the current environment. If you are working in an organization, you want to understand where the company is heading and where it could be heading with a new vision. You must understand the different parts making the vision a reality, such as what type of employees do you need, what must the organization focus on and who might be able to help you out.Once you have formulated a vision and a framework for achieving the vision, you need to outline to others. But even after the vision is out in the open, you need to have the clarity to keep assessing your environment to ensure the vision is attainable. While you might not change the end objective, you might need to adjust the framework on how you get to the goalStep 2: Improving your ability to communicate this visionYou need to be able to articulate your vision to the subordinates and other stakeholders in a clear and concise manner. The above points on characteristics should give you tips on improving your communication skills. But there are two other strategies you need to focus on: motive arousal and persuasive language.In order for subordinates to buy into your vision, you need to find what motivates them to perform the required tasks. Notice that in an organization, different people might find different motives appealing. For example, the idea of more power might appeal to middle management who are driven and ambitious. On th e other hand, employees with less motivation and ambition might find a vision of financial gain as motivatingYour language must be persuasive. Again, understanding the person’s motivations help, but you also need to utilize role-modeling for inspiring the person to act. Setting an example can act as a powerful motivator for subordinates.Step 3: Creating a trustworthy and committed environmentCoercion is not an effective part of charismatic leadership. Instead, you should focus on building relationships that are based on trust. This can lead to the creation of a committed environment where subordinates are inspired to work hard towards the goals.You need to be able to ensure the vision you’ve set out is viable. This means you need to be accountable for the actions the organization takes, you must be willing to take risks and you need to showcase high levels of expertise. These will help you create more trust, not only in your vision, but also on yourself as a leader.Step 4: Achie ving the objectivesThe final step is about achieving the vision you have set out using the chore tactics of charismatic leadership. This includes role-modeling and empowering your subordinates with motive arousal. Charismatic leadership provides the ideas and tools to lead people, but it also understands the differences in the situations. Therefore, achieving the vision is the key, not following a rigid set of rules in order to get there.Finally, watch the below TEDx talk by John Antonakis on the topic of why charisma matters in today’s world. ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF CHARISMATIC LEADERSHIPCharismatic leadership is among the leadership theories that can be both a blessing and a curse to an organization. A strong vision with emotional influences can be a force for positive change, such as the example of Martin Luther King’s civil rights movement, but it can lead to darkness as well.Advantages of charismatic leadershipAs mentioned above, charismatic leadership can at its be st, be an inspirational style to lead. A successful, charismatic leader is able to create a vision, which attract subordinates to the cause. The ability to motivate and empower people through this vision can eventually lead to more success.Consider an example of a failing business. A charismatic leader can utilize the tools of charismatic leadership and create a vision of an organization that leads the industry. The message of the better future, and the confidence the leader shows towards subordinates can guarantee the employers are motivated to work together towards these goals. As the examples and research data above shows, the right type of motivation and vision can boost people’s ability to get the job done more effectively.Furthermore, the shared vision provides another big advantage of the theory: better workplace cohesion. Since everyone in the organization is aware of the same mission and objectives, everyone is essentially working to achieve the same goal. No one is gaini ng anything more, as the motivation isn’t about punishments or financial gains â€" rather; the whole company shares the same objective. Knowing that everyone is essentially looking forward to the same achievement can create a stronger sense of togetherness and unity.The visionary way to lead can lead to better results because it ignites people’s passion. It’s hard to be a charismatic leader without strong convictions and therefore, the leader is passionate about getting things done. As many entrepreneurs tend to say, “it’s the passion that gets you up every morning”. In addition to the passionate approach to doing things, charismatic leadership also encourages risk-taking and thinking outside of the box. Together, these qualities can drive change in an organization and have a meaningful impact on the operational efficiency of the company.Since the emphasis is on achieving the objectives and working towards the shared goal, charismatic leadership tends to flourish learnin g behavior. Mistakes are not used for punishment and disasters are not shrugged under the carpet. Instead, charismatic leaders and therefore the subordinates examine the mistakes and learn from them in order to move forward. For a business, learning from past mistakes is a crucial part of avoiding the issue second time around.The clarity in the objectives and vision are especially beneficial in situations where a company might be facing a crisis. As House and Weber argued in their theories, charismatic leadership works especially well in crises. If work morale is low and the company is lacking direction, a strong, charismatic leader can provide the organization a needed boost and positive vision for the future. The focus on individuals and their self-esteem will also provide an instant boost in employee morale.Overall, the above can boost employee moral and productivity. The workplace can become a more invigorating and exciting place to be, with the possibility of larger social chan ge on the horizon. The company’s profitability, productivity and longevity can therefore improve.Disadvantages of charismatic leadershipBut as we briefly mentioned at the start of the section, charismatic leadership is not always transformational in a positive manner. The vision, envisaged by the charismatic leader, is not always universally positive and in the darkest examples of the human history, it can be deadly. If you consider the essence of charismatic leadership â€" dominance, confidence, strong convictions and the ability to get followers on your side â€" then one example of charismatic leader from history could be Adolf Hitler. He was able to paint a vision of a future for people, which they took at face value.Unlike ethical leadership, charismatic leadership doesn’t make judgments on whether the vision is good or sustainable. Therefore, there isn’t much room for inner moral conflicts within the leadership theory. The problem is that a charismatic leader might be dri ven by self-interest or poor judgment, instead of showcasing values that cherish other people’s wellbeing.In a less-sinister manner, charismatic leadership can slip into arrogance or tunnel vision. The leader, along with his or her followers, can simply focus on the vision, without re-evaluating or re-examining its validity or attainability. For an organisation, this could be devastating, as resources might be better spent in a different manner.Since charismatic leadership doesn’t work without the support of subordinates, the obedience levels of subordinates can go on unchallenged. In essence, this means the leadership model’s apparent strength can simply be down to “yes-men” around the leader. Instead of questioning or challenging the leader’s ideas, subordinates merely follow the orders.Finally, charismatic leadership is based on the relationship between the leader and his or her subordinates. If, and when, the leader moves on from the organization, the company might s uffer consequently because a strong leadership base disappears with him or her. The organization either needs a new charismatic leader, who has to spend time establishing his or her relationship with the subordinates, or implement a wholly new leadership structure into the organization. As the subordinates have based their trust in the vision of the charismatic leader, there is no leadership development within the organization to guarantee the next generation of leaders are able to take over.EXAMPLES OF CHARISMATIC LEADERSAs mentioned in the previous sections, charismatic leadership has plenty of historic examples in a range of fields. There are the political examples of Martin Luther King and the other extreme example of Hitler. But you also have charismatic leaders in the field of social justice and business.The below examples will hopefully outline the characteristics of charismatic leaders and the ideas of the model in a tangible manner.Mother TheresaMother Theresa might not be a conventional example of a leader, but she perfectly fits the definition of a charismatic leader. Mother Theresa, who was born in Macedonia, became a Roman Catholic nun and started working with the poor.She left her teaching position at the St. Mary’s School for Girls in 1946 in order to start serving the poor in the slums of Calcutta. In the 1950s and 1960s, she established different facilities in the slums to help the poor survive disease and malnutrition. Later, she also opened charities elsewhere in the world â€" all helping the poor.Mother Theresa was dedicated to a single cause and she had a vision to help the lives of those that don’t have much. She inspired others to follow her example and she dedicated her life to empowering the less fortunate. In essence, she showed what good charismatic leadership could achieve.Mother Theresa once said, “I alone cannot change the world, but I can cast a stone across the waters to create many ripples.” This highlights one of the i mportant parts of charismatic leadership: having others following you. Without the followers buying into your vision, you won’t succeed as a leader.Charles MansonBut as we’ve mentioned above, charismatic leadership is not always a force for good. For all the world’s Mother Theresas, there are examples of leaders who’ve used their charisma for doing bad. Charles Manson is one such example.In 1969, the US uncovered a cult called The Family, when the police found nine bodies in Los Angeles. The cult’s leader was a charismatic Charles Mansion who had managed to captivate the attention of young girls, only to end up killing them.Interestingly, Manson’s leadership skills and charismatic nature wasn’t just natural characteristics. He did, in fact, take a course on leadership and self-improvement during his time in prison. His ability to manipulate and influence people came from a highly popular book: How to Win Friends and Influence People by Dale Carnegie. Manson used the le arned techniques of promising people things, boosting their confidence just slightly and creating a vision of the better future, where he was the only saviour. Unfortunately for the world, his vision was dark and involved taking the lives of innocent people. He took proven leadership qualities and turned them into a sinister manipulation. Yet, his example shows how charismatic leadership works when it’s efficient.To find out more about Dale Carnegie’s book and its message, check out the below Slideshare presentation, which summarizes the ideas in the book. Despite the bad press, the book is still one of the best in the field of leadership and worth reading if you’d like to improve your communication with other people.[slideshare id=632672doc=success-society-1st-presentation-1222981677263484-8w=640h=330]Jack Welch / General ElectricCharismatic leaders have also appeared in the business world. General Electric’s (GE) CEO Jack Welch is a good example of a charismatic leader. We lch had a sporting background and he used the lessons he learned as an athlete during his time in business.After graduating from college, Welch found himself working as a chemical engineer at GE in 1960. In 1981, he became the company’s youngest CEO. His approach to his position as a CEO was about creating personal and meaningful relationships. He met with the employees and the customers, talking with them to create a positive atmosphere.Nonetheless, his charismatic leadership style didn’t mean he avoided working towards the vision. He didn’t hesitate to cut costs, even if it meant laying off employees, because his ultimate vision was about creating a valuable and respectful business. He wanted to create an organization that would beat its rivals and in order to do this, he had to weed out mediocrity from his company. While this meant certain people had to go, it also improved the company’s communication, its development and ultimately its bottom line.In a telling quote, Jac k Welch once said, “The essence of competitiveness is liberated when we make people believe that what they think and do is important â€" and then get out of their way while they do it.” The idea sums nicely the essence of charismatic leadership and especially the idea of the motive arousal.Steve Jobs / AppleFinally, another example of a highly charismatic leader in the business world is the late Steve Jobs. Whilst Jobs was not universally liked as a leader, he was effective and persuasive â€" he even got the people who didn’t really like him to continue working for him.Jobs clearly highlighted strong conviction and vision. He wanted particularly designed products, often forcing the designing team to great lengths to achieve it. He kept mentioning his key objectives and ideas in almost all of his speeches and ensured everyone in the company knew what the vision was.Furthermore, Jobs didn’t just apply a single communication tactic with his subordinates. He changed his rhetoric and figurative language according to the audience. Just as a charismatic leader would in order to find the right motive for his or her followers to participate in the vision, he was able to sense what his crowd wanted and needed from him. A study into Jobs’ use of rhetoric, Loizos Heracleous and Laura Klaering from the Warwick Business School found leaders could take advantage of Jobs’ skills and “employ them to increase followers’ belief in their charisma as well as their effectiveness as a persuasive speaker”.Jobs used different images and examples as part of his discussion. For example, IBM was the evil player in the game, while Apple would come and save the day â€" you can see the charismatic vision and motive arousal working for his favour.Below is a clip of Steve Jobs’ biographer, Walter Isaacson, talking about Jobs’ leadership style: FINAL THOUGHTSCharismatic leadership is another trait-based leadership theory, which emphasizes the leader’s ability to convinc e the subordinates to work towards a specific vision. It’s often related to other leadership theories, especially since it relies on personal characteristics of the leader. But it is a powerful theory on its own and charismatic leaders can help create lasting changes in an organization.The framework for charismatic leadership focuses on conviction, communication and commitment. You need to develop a strong vision and be able to motivate other people to follow you. Your qualities as a leader and your ability to create meaningful relationships with your subordinates are the carrying forces of charismatic leadership, not any specific process or structure of the organization.Since charismatic leaders are willing to take risks and look beyond the horizon, they can have a positive impact on an organization or society. Unfortunately, the leader doesn’t necessarily need to follow a strong moral or ethical vision. History has shown us that charismatic leaders can lead subordinates astray and cause havoc while working towards their vision.Nonetheless, the leadership theory can be an effective way to motivate people and improve the way an organization operates.

Wednesday, May 20, 2020

Legal Case Study Essay - 1023 Words

Legal Case Study This case is about the disagreement between Simpsons Ltd v Thowers Ltd. The carrier’s liabilities will be discussed in three parts, firstly to resolve the problem, I am going to give a short description of the main components of the contract of carriage of goods by sea Act 1971, secondly I will decide which of the Hague Visby rules or the Common law is applicable, and to finish I am going to apply the rules in looking for the liabilities of the carrier by searching the†¦show more content†¦A) Conditions of the application Hague Visby rules. The Hague Visby rules do apply if : Art 1 (Carriage of Goods by Sea Act 1971) * The contract is based on a bill of lading or any other document of title. * Carriage of Goods by Sea is between ports in two different states. * The goods are not live animals * If the contract of carriage stated as being carried on deck and is so carried. B) Effect of the exclusion clause In the case, one clause could put in balance the use of the Hague Visby rules. In fact it is on the first bill of lading â€Å" five containers containing engine parts, liberty to carry on deck†, we have to check if the shipper could carry on deck or not. The case Simpsons v Thowers complete the first three obligations if we want Hague Visby rules apply. In fact, the contract is regulated by a bill of lading, which has been signed in two parts from contracting states and the goods capacity conform with the law (no live animals or dangerous goods). There are engine parts and 1,000 gallons of paint. However, with the clause â€Å"liberty to carry on deck†, we could ask them in this particular case if the Hague Visby rules cannot apply. 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Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Analysis of the banking industry in Qatar Example

Essays on Analysis of the banking industry in Qatar Research Paper Section/# Qatar Banking Prospectus The level of competition currently exhibited within the banking industry in Qatar. With regards to the freedom and level of competition that currently exists within the Qatari banking sector, it should be noted that the level of competition and freedom that exists within Qatar far outweighs the same levels of freedom and competition that are exhibited elsewhere throughout the region. This is evidenced by the fact that when the financial crisis struck, rather than taking direct action within the banking markets, the QIA (Qatar Investment Authority – a branch of the government) aimed to work with the banks to seek to provide the needed fluid capital to avert any domestic issues that may serve as spillover effects of the global crisis. Whereas a litany of other â€Å"more free† economic systems took federal action within the financial markets, Qatar sought to engage with the shareholders of the financial institutions indirectly rather than by taking direct action into the markets. 2. The laws and regulation set by government to reduce or increase competition in this industry. One of the ways that the government has actually served to decrease the level of competition that is currently exhibited within the industry is the way that it has chosen to cooperate fully with only handful of Qatar’s 18 currently operation banks. Although this tacit approval mechanism is a means by which one, or a small group of banks can be raised over the others, it also serves to provide knowledgeable shareholders with which the government is comfortable with cooperating on some of the larger pipeline and oil/gas extraction fiduciary projects. 3. The financial crisis ant its affect on the industry. Although briefly mentioned earlier in this analysis, the main way that the Qatari government sought to avert the affects of the financial crisis of 2007/2008 was to involve itself directly with the banks to ensure that liquidity remained high enough to avert any of the negative externalities that were being witnessed elsewhere throughout the world at that time with regards to a general lack of liquidity. As a means of doing this, the government of Qatar announced that they would be willing to take a 10-20% stake by means of capital injection into the banking sector. As it was noted that the economic issues associated with the global financial crisis would not intimately affect the banking system of Qatar to the degree that it was originally projected, the government reduced the level of proposed capital injection to around 5 percent over a period of several years. In this way, the observer can be aware of the fact that although the government of Qatar was willing and able to rapidly intervene in the financial affairs of its largest banks, it did so in a model that was in keeping with a well developed economic system with an advanced governmental structure interested in the preservation of its most important financial institutions.

International Business Strategies

Question: Discuss about the International Business Strategies. Answer: Introduction: Background of the Company Coca Cola: The Coca Cola Company is an American multinational company that manufactures and retails the product. The company has its headquarter in Atlanta, Georgia. A famous pharmacist John Stith Pemberton invented the product in the year 1886. The brand name and the formula of Coca Cola brought in by Asa Griggs Candler ( 2016). The main operation of the company was based in North America. The company over the years has made some major acquisitions, which has made the company to strengthen the base of the company. Evaluation of the Strategy of Coca Cola for Structuring and Organizing the International Operations: The company Coca Cola in the year 1886 was the seller of cocaine infused elixir but sugary drink has come out in the year 1929. Coca Cola reports suggest there are more than 200 countries with 1.9 billion people consuming the product. The strategy that the company considered was unique and was market as tested formula (Cateora, Gilly and Graham 2013). The logo is unique and the font is unique which is recognised all over the world. The strategies applied is distribution in proprietary bottle, the retailers responsibility includes maintain higher level of standards ( 2015). The company Coca Cola advertised through the word of mouth and developed a voice. The prices were moreover fixed over the years, which was a very important strategy as this helped the company to gather a large market share around the world (Business Insider 2016). Implementation of the Strategy by Coca Cola: The unique formula that was adopted by the company Coca Cola was market tested. John Pemberton wanted to develop coca wines. The law was passed in Atlanta then the forced manufacturers of the beverage to produce non-alcoholic type of drinks. Pemberton had unique and tailored taste of the customers. The New Coke disaster has made the brand unique 1985 and the recipe remained unchanged. The company gained advantage without tailoring the taste to regional market. The logo is unique and this has a deep history, which has already imprinted in the mind of the world. The Coca Cola has commissioned the design of the bottle as defensive type of marketing but the promotion will be just like the logo and the product. The Coke bottle is a type of icon. The adjustment of the prices of Coke over the years is 5 cents. Reason for the Company Coca Cola to Attain Success and Become a Global Brand: The company Coca Cola despite having a massive industry globally with a huge number of products did not move away from the basic and the timeless ideals. Throughout the decade with the number of campaigns, they were able to propagate effective message to the customers. The Company Coca Cola holds a global status and thus finds a way through which they speak to the customers at the local level. It was initially introduced in Australia and has successfully expanded in 50 countries. The offering in each country is customized as per the local language and culture and thus it has become a local name as well. Results: The company Coca Cola by following few easy marketing strategies can compete in the international market. Strategies that are applied were brilliant which made the company a recognizable brand. The company has gathered a huge market share around the world and this is likely increase with the increase in the base of the customers. A number of strategies Coca Cola considered before it ventured in the international market. With the strategies, the company was able to get large sales from around the world. The sale from US is 43%, 37% from India, Pakistan, Mexico, China and 20% from the rest of the world. References: Business Insider. (2016).7 brilliant strategies Coca-Cola used to become one of the world's most recognizable brands. [online] Available at: [Accessed 24 Jun. 2016]. Cateora, P., Gilly, M. and Graham, J. (2013).International marketing. New York: McGraw-Hill Irwin. (2016) [online] Available at: [Accessed 24 Jun. 2016]. (2015).Marketing strategy of Coca cola - Coca cola strategy. [online] Available at: [Accessed 24 Jun. 2016].

Thursday, April 23, 2020

Introduction of iphone 5s free essay sample

iPhone 5s is our most refined iPhone to date. It is meticulously designed, engineered, and crafted. But its the remarkable innovation inside the iPhone 5s that sets a new precedent. Its not just rampant technology for technologys sake. Every single component, every process, has been considered and measured to make sure that its truly useful, and that it actually enhances the users experience. This care, this consideration, extends to how we protect all of the important information that you actually carry with you on your iPhone. Its what led us to create Touch ID. Your fingerprint is one of the best passwords in the world. Its always with you and no two are exactly alike. So it made perfect sense to create a simple, seamless way to use it as a password. With just a touch of your home button, the Touch ID sensor quickly reads your fingerprint and automatically unlocks your phone. We will write a custom essay sample on Introduction of iphone 5s or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page You can even use it to authorize purchases through our stores for music, movies, TV shows, apps, and books. Setting up Touch ID to recognize your fingerprint is easy, and every time you use it it gets better at reading your print. It can read multiple fingerprints, and read them in any orientation. The technology within Touch ID is some of the most advanced hardware and software weve put it any device. The button itself is made from sapphire crystal, one of the clearest, hardest materials available. This protects the sensor and acts as a lens to precisely focus it on your finger. The steel ring surrounding the button detects your finger and tells Touch ID to start reading your print. The sensor uses advanced capacitive touch to take, in essence, a high-resolution image of your fingerprint from the sub-epidermal layer of your skin. It then intelligently analyzes this information with a remarkable degree of detail and precision. It categorizes your print by one of three basic types: arch, loop, or whorl. It maps individual details in the ridges that are smaller than the human eye can see. It even inspects minor variations in ridge direction, caused by pores in edge structures. Touch ID uses all this to provide the most accurate match in a very high level of security. All fingerprint information is encrypted, stored inside the secure enclave in our new A7 chip. Here, it is locked away from everything else, accessible only by the Touch ID sensor. Its never available to other software and its never stored on Apples servers or backed up to iCloud. Touch ID defines the next step of how you use your iPhone, making something as important as security so effortless, so simple. We believe that technology is at its very best, at its most empowering, when it simply disappears.